Cost benefit analysis and the environment: how to best cover impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services is a 2016 report, published by the OECD.
There are now a large number of valuation studies on the benefits of biodiversity and on ecosystem services, the services provided by different ecosystems (ESS). Both ideas have been used to elicit values from nature but in recent years the research community has focussed on ESS as the main organising framework, with some additional use of the biodiversity concept to value entities that have intrinsic value and are of an extraordinary nature.
Estimates are available for the services from most habitats, by type of ecosystem service, usually expressed in USD per hectare per year. Coverage varies by habitat and region, as does the quality of the assessment, but it is possible now to carry out an estimation of changes in values for a number of ecosystem services a result of the introduction of a new policy or of a physical investment that modifies the ecosystem
Doing business is a database that provides effective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 189 economies.
It looks at domestic small and medium-size companies and measures the regulations applying to them through their life cycle.
It also offers detailed subnational reports which covers business regulation and reform in different cities and regions.
Users can find data on the ease of doing business, ranks of each location and reform recommendations.
(Source: World Bank Group)
This item originally appeared on the MADGICAL Web on May 2, 2016.
The impact of literacy, numeracy and computer skills on earnings and employment outcomes is a 2016 report, published by the OECD.
Using the 2012 PIAAC data, our analysis confirms that there are significantly higher earnings and employment returns to both increasing levels of formally recognised education, and to increasing levels of numeracy, literacy and Information and communication technologies (ICT) skills proficiencies controlling for the level of education.
Unsurprisingly, the labour market returns to changes in formally recognised levels of education in general exceed the labour market returns associated with increasing levels of skills proficiency. In the case of literacy and numeracy proficiencies, improved literacy and numeracy skills narrow the labour market outcomes gap between individuals with different levels of formally recognised education, but do not close it completely.